The sewer is a fundamental element for each building, is used as a dwelling that is intended to mean any other use. It is important that it is suitable and well functioning. Otherwise, the whole building will be absolutely unusable and it will be necessary to intervene with very invasive works. For this reason, it is good to plan the sewerage with full knowledge of the facts, considering all the elements at stake. However, we do not necessarily have to turn to professionals, but taking into account the right elements we will be able to do our project by ourselves. A sewer is a part of the sewer network where the different sections of the network will be conveyed, to then be removed from the urban center. Read on later and you will find out how to design a sewer system. Happy reading and good work!
How to design a sewer system?
The hydraulic dimensioning of a sewer determines the size of the elements that make up the sewer, fundamental for the verification of speed, flow rate and also the degree of filling in the relative sections. This verification will normally be done by making permanent motion assumptions.
The evaluation of the area
In order for the project to be well structured, the first thing to do is to carefully consider the context in which it is inserted, in order to understand what the real needs of the system are. The area that must be taken into consideration, requires the construction of the sewage network in order to allow the collection of both white and black waters. The latter comes both from homes that are private, but also from commercial buildings such as shops or which are intended for services. The white waters, on the other hand, come from the washout of roads, and also parking lots, therefore from the lack of infiltration into the permeable areas.
The choice of the sewer system will be conditioned by the presence of an existing collector measuring 1.40 meters x 1.90 meters near the Vallerano ditch of a unitary type. The development time of the project is expected for 10 years. The diameter of the pipes, in the sewerage technique, is called “speco”. It is designed in such a way that the fluid internally is governed by a current of free surface current, occurring with the provision of a partial filling of the “speco”. We give you an example for an ovoid “speco” considering a filling of 70%, while for a circular one the filling will be 50%.
The division of the disposal system
At this point, it is necessary to understand how the sewerage is organized as a whole. The disposal system consists of the main trunk called “trunk A”. It is in turn divided into five trunks, called A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, where the sections of trunk B and trunk C (divided into C1 and C2) and also trunk D also flow.
The hydraulic dimensioning of a sewer must make sure to determine the sizes of the elements that make up the sewer, and which will be essential for checking the speed, flow rate and degree of filling in its paths. It is necessary to keep in mind not only the average needs of the sewerage but above all the maximum ones, to prevent the system from collapsing at times of greater use.
This verification is normally done taking into account the permanent motion. Two types of flow are taken into consideration, in the hydraulic calculations, which are the black one and the white one. The first flow, that is the black one, is the one that derives from human activity, such as toilet drains, water that was used for washing, and water used by taps.
While the white flow, also called “rain”, is the flow that derives from meteorological activities. It is from the climate.
The value of the black flow is determined by the daily water supply, that of the white flow can be determined by following different calculation models that are based on forecasts. The main values are two, that is the Invaso method, (also called the Italian method), and the corrivation method.
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